Horoscop leo 23 februaryie

In like manner the Romans reckoned from thefoundation of the city; and sometimes from the expulsion of the kings or the Gallic conflagration. In Rome, however, the official mode of designating the year was by the name of the annual consuls; a similar mode of designation was generally adopted in the Greek states-thus, at Athens, an annual archon, at Sparta an ephor was eponymou8, that is, he gave his name to the year. The reckoning of the year by the names of the annual ma See Krauae l Olympia, p. Concerning the Trojan era, lee Clinton, F. The Hieromnemon W88 the eponymous magi,trate at Byzantium, Dem08th.

But the conversion of the names into a numerical date must have often required reference or calculation, and could only have been obvious to the memory for recent years. Yet the Romans appear to have used this mode of chronological notation not only for civil, but also for domestic purposes; thus they reckoned the year of their birth by the names of the consuls; and they marked their winecasks, in order to denote the year of the vintage, by the names of the same officers.

It exactly corresponds to the determination by the year of an officer who was not annual: The ode to the Amphora begins: Manlius Torquatua, consul in He ia again alluded to in Epod. A person dated hia birth by the conaulll; 88 Horace above, aDd Cie.

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Honee dates hia youth by a con8ul. He lays it down that when the plaintit givell written Dotice of action to the defendant, he is not to add the day and year: By the day ia meant the day of the month. A complete Roman date expressed the day ofthe month and the names of the consuls: The sun has always the same appearance: IDe The commencement of the year might therefore be placed at any point: Attic year began at the summer solstice; and the same rule was observed in several Ionic states. Sparta, with the other Peloponnesian States, and Macedon, began their year with the autumnal equinox: Jannary was the first month after that which included the winter solstice.

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Thus in England the year for many municipal and parochial purposes is reckoned from Lady-day or Michaelmas-day. The tenure of land is generally computed by the same periods. In Scotland, the period in contracts of landlord and tenant ill often dated from Lammas or Candlemas. As according to this system, the year is reckoned between two days determined by the established See the description of the moon s phases in the venes of Sophoclea, Fragm. JoB See the remarks ofPlot. Brandis, says that different nationa begin their year at different periods: In the middle ages, the system, derived from the Roman calendar, of beginning the year with the first of January was, to a great extent, abandoned; and years commencing at different festivals of the Church were introduced.

Some statements of ancient writers, and some conjectures of modem critics, are, however, inconsistent with this conclusion, and point to the existence of divergent years, wholly independent of the course of the sun through the zodiac, according to the view of the ancients, or of the periodic time of the earth in its orbit, according to the Copernican system. Eudoxu8 is here Digitized by CoogIe. It was the solar year from which this trimestrial or quadrimestrial period deviated. A different, though not more authentic, origin for this epithet of the Arcadians was assigned by Aristotle, in the chapter of his Collection of Constitutions which related to tIle Tegeates, an Arcadian community.

The great philosopher thought fit to inform his readers that Arcadia was originally inhabited by barbarians, who were expelled by the Arcadians in consequence of a battle fought before the rising of the moon. Ante Jovem genitum terru habuisae feruntur Arcades, et lanA gena prior ilia fuit. He appears to have been earlier than Herodotua.

Compare the dissertation of Heyne, de ArcadibuslunA. The Egyptian astronomy is, both by ancients and modems, referred to a remote date; the Egyptian astronomers and geometers are supposed to have been the teachers of the Greeks, as early as the time of Thales and Pythagoras. Herodotus states that the Egyptians were the first of all mankind who invented the year, and divided it into twelve parts.

We are even informed that the Egyptian year was changed from to days, in the year ofthe World The statement of Eudoxus cannot therefore be supposed to mean that the chronological period of a solar year, as received by other nations, was, in the fourth century before Christ, about thirty years before the foundation of Alexandria, unknown to the Egyptians. If therefore the statement of Eudoxus referred to his own time, the designation of a lunar month by the term ,Year must Solin. Proclus in Plato Tim. Thn Egyptians are, mm littF: Diodorus calls him Horus, and says that he w.

D Digitized by C. If they had not carried their observations of the sun s course so far as to form an idea of a year, they could have had no name for this important measure of time. As soon as they formed an idea of a year, they would naturally give it a name j but this name must have been different from that by which they signified a day. The belief in an original year of ten months was prevalent among the antiquarian and historical writers of Rome.

The most ancient authority cited for it is M. S3, atates that the Indiana used montha of fifteen daya. A month of fifteen daya, like a year of three or four montha, is doubtleu fabuloua. Romulus, at the foundation of the Roman state, instituted a year of ten months, or days, which he borrowed from Alba, the mother-city of Rome, and birthplace of his parent Ilia. The remaining six months received no allusive appellations, but were named by him numerically, in their order, from Quintilis to December.

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Ovid il copioUl upon this courtly theme, Jfut. Si qua tamen para te de Futia tangere debet. Cau, in Aprili quod tuearia habes.

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Qui diel menem Veneris mariu Findit Aprilem. Featns in MartiuI, p. Martins et generis RomanI pl 8! D 2 Digitized by CoogIe. They likewise were unanimous in supposing, that the numerical names of the six months from Quintilis to December originated in this fact. ISh But there was much discrepancy of opinion as to the origins of the names of fbur months. Martius was of the year,its name, on character of the Others!

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Thub that he named from the god of slaughter: Other explanations were likewise given for the names of these two months: So Ovid, in explaining the origin or the name of this month, says: Mars Latio venerandus Arma feral genti quia pnesidet armis ; "44 0: The sting w,n """Ollr;, " ll": It is alluded to by Ovid, Fast. The second year of Rome would have begun on October the 31st, 80 that April would have fallen in December, and have been a winter month.

The origins assigned for the name Maius are even more various. The month was said to have been borrowed from Tusculum, where the chief god was named Maius. Cincius derived Maius from Maia, the wife of Vulean. According to other etiologists, it was derived from Maia, the mother of Mercury, or from Mm, goddess of the earth, and Bona Dea, who had numerous titles and attributes. Ovid is perplexed as to the true origin of the name Maius, and professes himself as unable to choose among the many explanations proposed.

Majeatal, or sovereign power. Majorea natu, corresponding with Juniua, from Juvenea. Maia, one of the Pleiads. To Juno, referring to other examples ofthe same name. To Hebe, Juvental wife of Hercules. To thejunction of Romulus and Tatius. The reform of Numa is thus described. But the month Martiua was doubtlea HO called by the Italian natioua long before they had received the names of the planet. There was a month-Hpcuor in Crete, Bithynia, and Delphi. Concerning the names of the Roman montha, compare Merkel ad Ovid. These days he distributed between the ten existing months and two new months, January and February, which he prefixed to the year; so that March now became the third month; and the months beginning with Quintilis, which were founded upon a numerical nomenclature, were all misnumbered by two.

The month Januarius was named from the god Janus: Numa gave them the place of honour, at the beginning of the year, and assigned them a priority over the month of Mars, in his character of a pacific and philosophical king. As a year of days was shorter than the solar year by days, Numa sought to bring it into harmony with the sun by intercalation. The Greek system of intercalation to which allusion is made, is the octaeteric cycle, attributed to Cleostratus.

This system was based upon a year consisting of 12 alternate ten months. Numa made a yeu of twelve months.


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He also prefixed Januazy and February to the yeu: In our latitude, the mcreaae of the day in the ten days from Dec. I, i8 sixteen minutes. The populu belief that the yeu of Romulua conaisted of ten months, and that it began with March. I, I, eaya that: March was originally the firat month of the yeu.

The difference between this year and the solar year, being 11t days, was multiplied by 8, in order to avoid fractional parts of a day, and to produce a number of days convenient for intercalation. The intercalation obtained by this method for an octennial period was 90 days, which was distributed into 3 months, and these were intercalated at convenient intervals.